Cited Sources for our 2021 Ecological Health Report

Barbier, E. B., Hacker, S. D., Kennedy, C., Koch, E. W., Stier, A. C., & Silliman, B. R. (2011). The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological monographs, 81(2), 169-193.

Barbier, E. B. (2013). Valuing ecosystem services for coastal wetland protection and restoration: Progress and challenges. Resources, 2(3), 213-230.

Blankespoor, B., Dasgupta, S., & Laplante, B. (2014). Sea-level rise and coastal wetlands. Ambio, 43(8), 996-1005.

Coastal Science & Engineering (2021). Kiawah Island 2006 East End Beach Restoration Project Survey Report No. 14. Report to the Town of Kiawah Island. March 2021.

Costanza, R., De Groot, R., Sutton, P., Van der Ploeg, S., Anderson, S. J., Kubiszewski, I., Farber, S., & Turner, R. K. (2014). Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global environmental change, 26, 152-158.

Flood Mitigation and Sea Level Rise Adaption Subcommittee (2018). Flood Mitigation and Sea Level Rise Adaption for Kiawah Island, SC. Town of Kiawah Island. September 4, 2018. Summary Report.
Town website:
PDF of Report:

Given, A. (2020). Fall Migration Bird Banding 2009-2019 Report. Town of Kiawah Island.

Gramling, J. M. (2012) A Vegetation Survey of Kiawah Island.

Hartley, M.J. and A.J. Weldon, eds. (2020). Saltmarsh Sparrow Conservation Plan. Atlantic Coast Joint Venture.
Atlantic Coast Joint Venture Webpage:
PDF of Report:

Hill, Matt (2021b). Understanding the Water Quality in Kiawah Island Ponds. Kiawah Island Community Association Blog, July 22, 2021. Webpage.

Jordan, J. (2014). 2014 Bobcat Management Guidelines: Kiawah Island, South Carolina. Town of Kiawah Island, S.C. 2nd Rev.

Kiawah Conservancy (forthcoming, 2022). Nature-Based Solutions for Kiawah Island, SC. Guidance Document.

McElroy, Eric (2020). Invertebrate and Plant Survey on the Dunes at Kiawah Island. Report to the Kiawah Conservancy.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water.

Moslow, T.F. (1980). Stratigraphy of Mesotidal Barrier Islands. University of South Carolina.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2021). What is a maritime forest? Department of Commerce. Webpage.,diversity%20of%20plants%20and%20animals.&text=Trees%2C%20bushes%2C%20and%20other%20plants,periodic%20flooding%2C%20and%20salt%20spray.

Neumann, B., Vafeidis, A. T., Zimmermann, J., & Nicholls, R. J. (2015). Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding-a global assessment. PloS one, 10(3), e0118571.,15700023,15700186,15700191,15700256,15700259,15700262

Roberts, S. B. (2007). Ecology of white-tailed deer and bobcats on Kiawah Island, South Carolina: implications for suburban habitat preservation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia).

Sandifer, P. A., Holland, A. F., Rowles, T. K., & Scott, G. I. (2004). The oceans and human health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(8), A454.

Sanger, D and Parker, C. (2016). Guide to the Salt Marshes and Tidal Creeks of the Southeastern United States. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources.

South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (2005). Coastal Zone and Marine Ecoregion Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats.;jsessionid=182891EF33EB884FDA03264534ADE350?sequence=1

Schuerch, M., Spencer, T., Temmerman, S., Kirwan, M. L., Wolff, C., Lincke, D., McOwen, C.J., Pickering, M.D., Reef, R., Vafeidis, A.T., Hinkel, J., Nicholls, R.J., & Brown, S. (2018). Future response of global coastal wetlands to sea-level rise. Nature, 561(7722), 231-234.

Town of Kiawah Island (2021). Beach Monitoring Report Summary. July 23, 2021. Webpage. Link:

Vandiver, Lisa (2002). The Assessment of Indexing a Population of Mink on Kiawah Island.

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